Fig. 640.41B

Fig. 640.41B Minimum of Twelve Spokes Oppose Torque: Universal Joint:
  1. It takes a minimum of 12 spokes to overcome the turbining evident with the minimum four vectors of restraint. This is demonstrated with the 12-spoke wire wheel with its six positive diaphragm and six negative diaphragm of which respectively three each are positively and negatively opposed turbining or torque members.
  2. Two-axis and three-axis "universal joints," analogous to the wire wheel as a basic system relying on the differentiation of tension and compression for its effectiveness. These all may be considered basic tensegrity systems.

Copyright © 1997 Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller