We experience events and no-events. Ergo, we invent
characterize the finite but nonsensorial remote masses'
interattraction, i.e., the
Seeming "space" is the absence of energy events. The
word space as a noun
misleadingly implies properties that are altogether
All of our experiences are periodically terminated:
characterizes both the physical and the metaphysical
aspects of our observing faculties and
the observed phenomena. There are no experimentally
known continuums. Physics has
found no "solids." We have only awake or
nonexperience__occurrence durations and nonoccurrence
intervals; either discrete and
unique packages of energy or thought, on the one hand,
or of nonenergy or nonthought,
on the other hand. Each and all of these are as uniquely
differentiable, and as separable,
from one another as are the individual stars of the
The nonevent continuum is the novent. The novent continuum
finitely populated withinness and comprises the finite
novent withoutness. Novent is the
finite but nonsensorial continuum.
(See Sec. 905.20.)
There are no specific directions or localities in Universe
that may be
opposingly designated as up or down. In their place,
we must use the words out and in.
We move in toward various individual energy-event concentrations,
or we move out from
them. But the words in and out are not mirror-image
opposites. In is a specific direction
toward any one local individual system of Universe.
Out is not a direction; out is
nondirectional because it is anydirectional.
You are always in Universe. You cannot get out of
Universe. All the word
out means is that you are not inside a system. You can
only get out of systems.
In designates individual experience foci. Foci are
in, because focusable, but
always, as entropy shows, temporary. Relationships exist
between the ins because they are
definable. Out is common to all; out is timeless; out
is not really packaged.
In is discrete; out is general. The ins are discontinuous;
the outs are
continuous. Out is nothingness, i.e., nonexperience.
Only the nonexperience nothingness
In is temporal; out is eternal. Ins are knowable;
outs are unknowable. In is
individually, uniquely identifiable; out, though total,
inherently integral, and finite, is
nonidentifiable. In is individually, uniquely directional;
out is any, all, and no direction. Out
is all directions; even when temporarily inward toward
center, it passes beyond the center
to eventual outness.
It is experimentally demonstrable that an apparent
"plane" is a "surface" area
of some structural system. There are no experimentally
demonstrable continuums. All that
has been found is discontinuity, as in star constellations
or atomic nuclear arrays. Areas
are discontinuous by constructional definition. Areas,
as system "faces," are inherently
empty of actions or events, and therefore are not "surfaces."
There are no surfaces. Therefore, there are no areas.
So Euler's topological
aspects have to be altered to read: "Lines" = trajectories;
"vertexes" = crossings; and
"areas" = openings, i.e., where there are no trajectories
When three or more "lines," "vectors," or trajectories
each cross two others,
we have an opening. Our definition of an opening is
that it is surrounded, i.e., framed, by
Every trajectory in a system will have to have at
least two crossings. These
are always as viewed, because the lines could be at
different levels from other points of
If subvisibly modulated spiraling wave lines cannot
go through the same
point at the same time, there can be no continuous,
perfectly level planes. Planes are not
experimentally demonstrable. Solids are not experimentally
experiment has never discovered any phenomena other
than discontinuous discrete-energy
events, each uniquely identifiable amongst the gamut
of frequencies of cyclic discontinuity
of all the physical phenomena, as comprehensively and
overlappingly arrayed in the vast
frequency ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. The
electromagnetic spectrum "reality"
has been found experimentally to embrace all known physical
subvisible, or ultravisible thus far detected as present
in Universe. There are no solids. The
synergetic behavior of structures satisfactorily explains
as discontinuous that which we
have in the past superficially misidentified as "solid."
For a microscopic example of our spontaneous and superficial
misapprehending and miscomprehending environmental events,
we must concede that both
theoretically and experimentally we have now learned
and "know" that there are no
"solids," no continuous surfaces, only Milky Way-like
aggregations of remotely
interdistanced atomic events. Nonetheless, society keeps
right on seeing, dealing, and
superficially cerebrating in respect to "things" called
"solids" or "matter."
Take the simple word solid. We have physics of the
"solid state," a very late
phase of physics very improperly called "solid." Even
in solid state, the voids between the
atoms are as voids of interstellar space. The nucleus
itself is as empty as space itself. But
the concept "solid" was a comfortable kind of concept,
not easy to jettison.
Mass is a statement of relative event frequency per
volume. For example,
there may be something too massive for me to put my
finger through because it has too
high an event frequency.
There is no universal space or static space in Universe.
The word space is
conceptually meaningless except in reference to intervals
between high-frequency events
momentarily "constellar" in specific local systems.
There is no shape of Universe. There is
only omnidirectional, nonconceptual "out" and the specifically
"in." We have time relationships but not static-space
Time and space are simply functions of velocity. You
can examine the time
increment or the space increment separately, but they
are never independent of one
Space is the absence of events, metaphysically. Space
is the absence of
energy events, physically.
The atmosphere's molecules over any place on Earth's
surface are forever
shifting position. The air over the Himalayas is enveloping
California a week later. The
stars now overhead are underfoot twelve hours later.
The stars themselves are swiftly
moving in respect to one another. Many of them have
not been where you see them for
millions of years; many burnt out long ago. The Sun's
light takes eight minutes to reach
us. We have relationships__but not space.
You cannot get out of Universe. You are always in
Scenario Universe. See
Sec. 524, Novent.)
Systematic Inclusion and Exclusion of Space
[526.10-526.35 Space Scenario]
Space is the antithesis of solid. Both are misnomers.
Solid (or mass) refers to
locals of too high an event frequency for our physical
members to penetrate or conceivably
tune in. Space refers to locals of an event frequency
per volume too low for our
apprehending equipment to tune in.
Space is systemic inadvertency. Space is all the observer's
Space is the inescapable awareness of unaccounted
otherness: the otherness
is unconsidered but always and only co-occurrent with
Space is finite as a complementary of finite Scenario
Universe. As a co-
occurrent, complementary function of finite but non-unitarily-conceptual
unitarily-tune-in-able Scenario Universe, space is finite.
Space does not have definable
properties. Only systems have definable characteristics.
The cognitive awareness of space derives from definition
characteristics whose topological interrelationships
inherently and oherently divide
Universe into insideness microcosmic space and outsideness
macrocosmic space. Systems
have 32 topological characteristics (enumerated at Sec.
Systems capture. Systems exclude. Systems capture
all the special case,
twilight-zone, only-grossly-tuned-in but as-yet-differentially-undefinable,
neighboring "otherness" systems as well as all the inward,
untunable, nonsystem space.
Systems exclude the twilight zone of only-partially-tuned-out,
definable, outwardly neighboring otherness systems as
well as all the outward, untunable,
nonsystem space. Systems capture all the infratunable,
concentric tween-waves that are
too-high-frequency for experience-intuited-expectancy
space nothingness and exclude all
the ultratunable, concentric tween-waves that are too-lowfrequency
intuited-expectancy space nothingness.
"Solids" are the frequencies that are too high for
Space is the integral of all the frequencies that are
too low for tune-in-ability.
Included spaces and excluded spaces are both concentric.
Tuning = dismissal
of irrelevancies. Those too large and of too low frequency
are dismissed omnidirectionally.
Those too small and of too high frequency are dismissed
inwardly. The tuning
phenomenon is either inward or omnidirectional .
Insideness is the captured nothingness. Insideness
becomes the conceptually
embraced, system-defined space. Outsideness is the conceptual-system-defined,
uncaptured nothingness. Without systems there can be
no space awareness. (Compare
Systems are awareness concepts. Space
is nonconceptual awareness.
Space is a finite but nondefinable complementary relationship
function of the
definability of singular or plural system characteristics
and their interrelationships. System
is all the relevant thought, all the think-about-ableness.
Space is all the unthink-about-able
Space is the aggregate of all the vector equilibrium
nulls of all magnitudes
and frequencies of all isotropic vector matrixes always
potentially articulatable in all
directions from any point of origin.
Visual Aspects of Space
Where there is no radiation, there is no light. If
it had always been "night," I
doubt that people would have invented the word space.
At night you have no sense of
otherness__no sense of space complementation of system-defining
limits. Space is a
"visual" word, touch being an ultra-highfrequency "visualization."
Space is concentric and multisystem partitionable.
Space is never linear. It
takes four events to define three intervals. The special
case events appear to be linear only
because they are always successively experienced. Potential
time-size__is initially cognizable when recurring after
the same interval as that recalled as
existing between the first and second similar systemic
events experienced, but only upon
the third recurrence of the similar systemic experience
event do we have four similar
systemic events to define three similar intervals__ergo,
to confirm the periodicity that
could only be intuitively anticipated after the third
similar event experience had marked a
second similar between-events interval.
It takes a minimum of four similar-system-experiencing
event recurrences to
produce three similar between-event intervals and differentially
excite a recollected pattern
cognition that confirms the periodicity__a periodicity
that was only intuitively and
speculatively anticipated at the time of the third similar-system
confirmatory fourth event and its third similarly intervalled
recurrence cognition in turn
introduce the inherently minimum sixness of convergent
interrelationships of any four
subdifferentiable points of tunably identifiable system
experiences-which four, together,
always define the four corners of a larger system. (Compare
Secs. 265.08-13 265.08-13,
Our eyesight is stroboscopic at 60 cycles per second.
Because of the lags in
apprehension we are not aware of the "between-takes"
intervals. We do not sensingly
realize that the nothingness is concentrically permeating
the concentrically waved
The phenomenon death is as yet ultratunable system
experience. We have no
way of knowing whether any single, dual, or triple recurring
experience events are to be
followed by a fourth, as-yet-unexperienced, similar
event which, if and when it occurs,
may constitute a system-tuning-in, live realization
of the omnioccurring, infratunable,
tunable, and ultratunable systems' concentric intervalling.
Death is intervalling. Life and
death are always and only co-occurrent, life being concentrically
successive tuning-ins and
death being the as yet nontuned-in. (See
Secs. 262.10 262.10
Out is any-directional. You go in to go out because
out is not only any
direction but is all directions__electromagnetically
speaking it is "tuned-out." (See Sec.
In is what we are thinking about now. In is
the momentary reality into which we
are tuned. All the rest is for the moment tuned-out
but equally real as the information or
experience is progressively tuned-in.
Physics finds that Universe has no solid things surrounded
interspersed with, space. Life is an inventory of tuning-ins
and tuning-outs of experience.
Birth is the first tuning in; death may not be the last.
Systematic Communication of Space
Space is the invisible complementation of the cognitive
system. Like the
rubber glove, cognition is left hand; space is inside-out
right hand, and vice versa.
Space is the unconsidered complement of the conceptually
episode and its only neighboringly overlapped episodes
of Scenario Universe. Space is the
untuned-in complement of considerability and conceptuality.
tuned & untuned
in & out
Special case is always tune-in-able. Special case
is imaginable by brain.
Conceptuality is a function of mind. Conceptuality is
a priori independent of special case
frequency tunability. Conceptuality is generalized,
and the space complementation of
generalized conceptuality is generalized. Space is generalization.
Death is the
omnidirectional otherness of as-yet physically realized
Scenario Universe. Death is the as-
yet unborn set of all the unconsidered special cases
of all the as-yet undiscovered__ergo,
Conceptuality and its complementary space generalizations
do not account
or embrace the a priori mystery, the integrity of eternally
regenerative Scenario Universe.
All the inherent, concentric, systemic conceptuality,
its internal spatial intervals, and its
external spatial embracement are altogether both subordinate
and supraordinate to the
nonconsiderability of such a priori mystery as . . .
How come Universe?
Systems divide all of Universe. Thought divides all
of Universe. Thought is
inherently systemic__whose inherency always has its oherency
of space. Only systems can
communicate space. Space is systems-defined-and-deferred
awareness of potentially
Copyright © 1997 Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller